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9.2. Aoapoae paoe eca (APM) copyo p a ae epcoax BM

 

o - (BM) nouaemc empoa ucumea aua, oeocmyna accooo nooae u yuepca peeux paoopax a.

Tpoe oeocmynmu accooo ooa ae ce ceye oaae, a o:

eea BM yax ooaee;

aoooc cyaa ceax peoa yco opyae cpe;

"pyeceo", cpa oye cooa, oeceae paoy eooeoy ooae;

eoc, apyac a coo ypoe epa ee ooe, a ae oepao aeo ocya.

Ceye , o oaae co BM p ee pope e ee peaeo ae. opao aee ypoe oceyeo copooe, aeco popaoo oecee . Haae apa p aye pacxo a cyaa poecce eoo a BM oy oac ecoo pa a ce ooe ox aapax ocoo popax .

epcaocm BM peex paoopax aa a:

oc apxeyp, opa oeceae ee ao paoopa pee cepe ypae;

po apxeyp, ooy poo ee ocoy oa ye ee ox aapao-popax cpc;

coeo BM pax pooee a ypoe eeo epeca opaox ocee, oeceay po oe popa poya;

oooc oeoo cooa opooceo epepoo oopyoa, ocya aa ax aoo oea opae a ce oe ce c.

oee e aae o CA o pee BM eoo cepe xapaepyec cey ceopa pe:

ape 36%;

ypaee pooco (c, aya, ypaee aaca capoae, acoo-ooece pace, apoae ypaee pyo pecypca) 28%;

pee aoce oepa 25%;

opaoa cepa 11%.

Coaco peyaa ocoa ooo c pyx p o (a p) peee BM aoaa ypeeeco eeoc oco eoc ypae oee e a 15% a ce oe pooeoc pya, yee apax pacxoo, yye aeca opao opa, ee cpae p pee eoc cooa ax.

ooae eoo cepe pe eca coe peoa ypo ex ypoc BM ee eoeo-aoy epecy. p opae eoo opa pey coae ox a ax oepa ocy coa opa. ooy eoxo peoae BM c ae ex aoee eoc e eee 40120 Ma.

poaoe oeceee BM, peeoe ccee ypae pe, peocae ee copyy oooc opao ec, poee ax ce, peopaoa opa ooo a pyo (apep, ao paecy), a ae opaa a ax. p exo pa a pae eoxoo acao p po eeoc oae (a coa c paoe oyea, paa co caap opa oye ..).

Peyao ypaeeco eeoc a pe e oopeue oyem.. p oo BM ooo yee yax o ( epox a papex aax o aopacx) a pax ax eo oppoa.

Cpy p, a pao, e oaa poeccoa a oac popapoa ocya epoo ex, x ex coye oepaa cce apaoo oo ocya BM.

pooe cooae BM opaaooro ypae pe, o cyecy, pey coa opeeo cce aoapoax paox ec, opo BM copy p ca oec aapoa ypaeec . B cyae ep "aapoa" eco ee eaopa, a a oe ypaeece pee pyo oac aaa, oc opec xapaep ac o cooyo oex cyex apo.

B acee pe oo oop o aaa oo oee oo eopx poecco, apyxc a popao oepe oecee opaoo exoo (ece ae poeccop, pae op, a ax ..). p cye oepy, ae execx paoo aaa oaec oo ac x opaox . pe peee oya, e oa ., o o, ce cxooec, pa eaeo acao ypoc ("exa"). ooy BM a paoe coe copya p c pe aapoaoo paoeo ea oa o copee yuu coonpououmeoo ''umeemyaoo" accucmema (opaa ao, oc, coppoa, coaee oeo, ocpoeee ax a pae), ee aaa opaaooo ypae. Too c ye aoo oxoa pcae oppe pacpocpa a ypeecy eeo oe aapoaoo paoeo eca, a a pe e ao cyae o epcoao epe ypae.

auma ax. Oo aex poe p opoe aeo opaoo pyyp a ae BM ec oeceee a opa. Oa oxaae a ecy ay ax ccx popa, a ay o ecaopoaoo ocya a, epeaae o c. Ta opao, oe "aa ax" paccapa opoc eooc ax ypae ocya a (caopoaoc) a pe.

aoee eoo cooa opaoax a pae cpec a ax x ee eoxoo peycapa ye a pax cax poepoa cce ypae pe. Cey oepy, opaa oax cee a pax ee opay copoy . B cyae ce oepe poeyp ecoo opae oya BM cao ee, ep poe epeeae opaa opo a oe cooae ax. p oeoo cooa coxpae poea a o op aoro ooae ce.

Coxpaee eooc ax e opaao exooec . Opauauo acnem ae ceye paa:

oce opa eoxoo xpa eax, eoyx ocpox ;

aa opa oa e ecoo o a pax ocex;

ay ax a eco ao ce cye oepa epoec opoae a e ae . aca opoa pae coaco a cpeo pee a opoae cpeeo pee a ocaoee opa oce oceeo opoa cyae ooe eeo opoao epc;

ae, oocec pa aaa, eecoopao xpa eo;

eoxoo cpoo pyoocoac paa opae c a .

Texoouecu acnem ca c pa a opae, ope oepac cpyypo cce ypae aa ax (C) o ocy ooae. Cyecy opae:

ooe opeex apy c e coxpae peyex poop ey x ap o ae;

peye coxpae ae o oaae eopo aaoe;

cae c aa y acoc.

Oeceee caopoaoc cooa ax eooao oxaae ocoo opoc a ax o eeaeo oa yoe, a ae o ecaopoaoo x e. Moo e p ooex exaa ypae ocyo a: ea ooae, ocpecea (eca) aa ax oepa pa oya ooae a c oooc x epa.

Cpymypa APM copyuo upu. Koeyaoe oe APM copya p a ae BM poc BM a paoe ce poepa, aepa, pyooe p coo , APM opa apxeypa BM yoa, ec pooec acpaae a opeoo ooae (epcoaoe APM) pyy ooaee (ce APM). poecc eooae (ocoeo p aaa pao ceaco), oy epo oa ooo cepee pyoc oocoa opeee ox peoa APM, opepoax a peee pax aa. eceo, c oo cpo, ceaa p (poepa, epa, aepa) o peoa ooo pea aa, oocec pa ca x pa pa poeccoa opea (oc oapo y poa, aa eca pex e ..), a c pyro pyooe p o e oooc ypa poecco eppoa peya pa ceac oee pye opaoe acc p pee.

Apoaoe pae cmo (APM) compya npecmaem coo cooynocm emouecux, ox u npopa cpe, oecneuaux paomy nooamee a BM oacmu upeo emeocmu (26).

aa coaa APM cpya p cea aoa ooae BM, a ae popaa ccea, peaya oeceaa eee eoxoo a ax a pe. ooae poepye, a pao, epoeyp poeccoao . Eo ocoy coca ep, eoxoe pao oac peo po.

Oeceaa ac APM pea opaye opaoo-aepay ocoy ae opaooe, execoe popaoe ocee, coyee ceaa p pee cox ypaeecx opaaox a.

o oe APM compyo mo cooynoc peauoax peeu no oey, paeeu u opa opuu uopauu, eoxouo yuoupoau APM compyua up. Oo a opao-cpaoy opa o peo eeoc, ypoae ceae accaop exo-ooeco opa ce oyea (apep, accap oo apx py, cea oyea o poepco eeoc). opo pecae opaa ax APM cya oye, acc a ax.

p poepoa APM cpya p opaooe oeceee axo coe paee coa a aaeo uopauoo a () a cooynocmu ynopoeo u opauoao coomemcmyu opao uopauu.

Paa eay ypay opaoe a. Beaua o ac opaoo a (), pecaa coo cooyoc cooe oye, coyex p yopoa pax APM a pe ope, opa ocpaec ooaee x APM e pee cpc ceo ex. Bympuaa o ac , cocaa cooyoc coaaex coyex ax a ax ocex e opaox ao a ax.

Oao ceye oe, o oceeo p cooa ce oee ox BM paec cpae pa ey eao ypao aa, a a opa opaye ee eocpeeo BM, x cex () cex oecax oee cooo ypo.

Ocoo oppoa opaoo a p cy oenu a x. Ce opao, opoee a oe, oaa cey occa:

a BM coa, xpac opaaa e oo eeape ae, o coe cpyyp, oe ae;

pyyppoae ax copaa x ypoae po oo a a ex ocex ( ocoeo ao BM), oae aeoc ocepoc opa ( ee ooe aee APM a pe);

a ax coa, oca, cyecy ayapy eaco pax popa;

oeceae epa opa, ooy a opa ao oeo opao ox ooaee APM;

ccea opao e oee cpoo aeo, a apa a ee eee ocyae .

aee aaa eeoc opeo p eoxoo coae opaoo a ca oae ceaa p a ocoe pao popaoo oecee cooo ypo, pax cpyeax cp poepoa, coax BM, aoooo pea pao.

Bu uaoa ey BM u nooamee. p coa APM copya p aee aae e paoaa opaa aoa ey ooaee BM. Copy p o ee ooeoc paoe a BM oy ycoo opaee a empe :

1 aee popapoae a aoo e ao BM;

2 ee oao xopoy ooy pao a ao APM, ae ero popaoe oeceee ocoe paoy a BM;

3 ee cay ooy pao a ao BM;

4 e aee aa popapoa BM.

oo cpo cpeeo ea ypae pe (e pecpa poepcx p poepo, oe opaa po, yxaep, aoo-ooec oe p.), ax opoca opaaooo ypae peax oe ooece aa, paea o po pee aeop. Cpy ceo ea ypae pe (pyooe p), peae eoe aa opaaooro ypae, a pao, e ae popapoae .

Bee aa, cax c ocao co aoo c BM, peye cooa a ceac c coo poeccoao ooo. ooy oopeeo c oco o popa cpea APM ooae o pe cyae peocae oee cpa, ooe oy eoxoe a pao a BM yo pee.

Ta, ceax aaa aa opaaooo ypae cy pae mun uaoa.

1. u, uuuupye BM, ocooae oae APM o ye eo popax oepapo. Xapaep pepo aoo aoa e e "e", p opo ooae pae o ecoo pex BM .

2. noeu op ae pyec BM, p opo ooae ae ceao oopae op a pae ce, a ae aapy opaaae op c oo popaoro oecee APM. O oao eo ocoe, o e oe .

3. uo eoyeoo nooe ee xapaepy ocoeoc, a eo oy coc e BM, ope e o oa .

4. uo c noo ucupoax apo uopauu peoaa, o BM pae oe cca . peyeco aoo aoa , o ocoy opa ae BM e opox cooe, a ooae o oo opoe oe (na Yes/No).

popao-mexoouecoe oecneeue APM compyuo up. Haoee a ooe popaoro oecee APM cpyo p e onep cucmea (OC), opa oe ceye ocoe y: oeceae eaco pax npopa o peex execx cpec, oeae epeoc porpa a pye cee ce, oaa pacpe ooo papao ycoepecoa pax popa, OC ae ae cpeca oep ao pa, ypae aa ax, oyao y (peeo oa oa ce) aoec ooa c .

B aoee pe eo ooe oeo OC epcoax . Oao aoee pacpocpaee oya oepaoa ccea MS DOS c ee pa .

B ocoe aoaa opaaooo ypae pe oy ee ceye mexouu:

opaoa eo eoa paa;

opaoa opax ax (a);

paoa c epcoa aa ax;

epeaa ax oye epe ce c;

coec ocy epaoa a.

peee ece pap (apep, Lexicon, Foton, ChiWriter p.) oo cyeceo oe aay coa pax oye, oe, ce .. oee ro, peee BM aece eaaeo ypoa a p ooex yoc o cpae c o ea aa oooc cooa oopeeo pycc ac aa, aaec opapoa aa paa e a pa, ocyec oe oc oey aey, e pae ea aee x paeax e p, oopao opoa pae pye ea eca, ya eo ..

B acee pe ooecx paceax ooe peee oy ae poeccop, ae, a SuperCalc-4, Lotus 1-2-3, Multiplan. popae cpea paae pee ceo yaoo coa ceaa-ooa oo e oo eo poo pyoee ooece pace, o ocyec aa pax aoacx ey coo ooecx oaaee, ppoa aepa a paa.

pa c epcoa aa ax cya popae poy, oocec accy ce ypae aa ax (C). C npecmaem coo npopay cucmey, nooy noe coaam cocmee a mpeyeo cmpymyp, ycmaaua ocu ey au, ocyecmm o, oppemupoy u yeue uopauu u ao, npocampuam ye ae, peopauoam ay ax, opupoam omem mo uu uo cmeneu coocmu. Cep peaaex a poo pe C oao po a co coa pae (a o pa yopoa, a o xapaepa) popae ce, opepoae a peee pa pya . K aoee pacpopae C occ DBASE-3, DBASE-4, FOXBASE+, CUPPER p.

oe cpca C c aee ooe ao ax, a a oeo cee o oecea epec ooaee pax aeop c ao ax. oe cpeca oa C oc a eepo ooe (epoe ooee coca ae , poe coece acceepa, pee aopece a PL, COBOL .., 60-e o ec a cooo ypo, oao op opao e, e y o eepo ooe).

eepo ooe coaac o py: " co opoe, e ". x poepoae ocoaoc a npuunax:

ya pao ( oe oece y yc, "aa" ay paoa);

ya acepca (paa oa a poca, a oo o ooo; oa e oa yeo pax oo oce);

eeceo a, ypae "opooo" cacca eo ( e oe peoa o ooaee aex yc ye cacca coepa oo eoecx x ooae, ope po aa);

ya pee ( e ceceo aep oe oo peaoa oae peo oye opa ee opaoe);

ya oo (exoo cey poepoa a opao, o poa o ooae, a p x ooe o ooo po "o" x aoaec);

ya oep (exa o eepo ooe ooe eo oc ee eec poe);

acya peyaa ( epo ooe poa ooae o pye pee paoopax aa).

Cep ox oooce, coyex C, ooo po. B pa ox cp oo e e oenuu: paeu u u. p cooa oe paee paa ceye : oca ax, aypoa a, apoco p. B acoc ocoeoce C coa o oca ax xo ce eope oca: cxe, ocxe, xpax ax, ex ax (xox, xox).

aypoa a paec a e oe py: poeype epoype. p ooa poeyp a ceye yaa, ae ec a a oea eoxoo o, o oy peya. B epoeypx ax yaae, o ao oy cee, a e a o oc.

poeype paac o oco opao a, op o a: oy , opepoae a oacy opaoy ax, , apaee a oepa a oeco ace.

oe cpa peaaa ooaee pax aeop: oex ooaee, ccex aao, poeccoax popac. oee ypo ox cpc, x "pyeo" po y, o ce oee co y ooae-epopaca caoceo, e o.

poea ce cpoo apa a papay opeoo APM copya p oe eo papeea ye coa ypoaoo pa APM, ao opx eeo ocoe po ooe APM c coecy ao popa oeceee. Toa p oppoa ooo APM (apep, APM poepa, APM aepa, APM yxaepa p, APM copya aooo oea p ..) eecoopao aoo coaa oee ooe ce, xapaepe oo ao opeo oa pee.

Kccuuau APM a upe. Moo e p acca aapoax paox e a pe:

APM pyooa p;

APM ceac p;

APM execoo cooaeoo epcoaa.

Heaco eex acco APM oy cyeeo ac py pya o cee "eeyaoc" o poex aeo pax popa o caoacpaaxc cce o opy oac eo copyo p.

au, oope p pea, oo opae a:

opaoo-cpaoe, coyye, a pao, aoy-o exooecoy poeccy (apep, peo poecc po);

opaaoo-ooece, peaee ocao eaco py o pya e pye ceao oepae a ;

oe opaaoo-ooece, opaoo cae ey coo, peye ceax cp opaa ee opeeee aop oca ae ax opa x ax (opaa coex po ecox p oopeex po ecox ce ..);

eoe opaaoo-ooece, opepoae a cooeyy ocyece poo oc ax x opay o yaa .

pyeao oep eeoc oo paoa p p coa APM oy cooa pae aape pae popae cpea. x coa ac o yoax aa o eeo: acpao-opaaoo, poeccoao-opeco execo (pyo).

Auucmpuo-opuoa paoma xapaepye 6o oeo yx oex pee a pax ypox . K ao eeoc oo oec: opo a coee pee peoo coa, poee coea opaaox epop a pe, pay c oe, aa eyeo coc e apoae p.

po-mopeca emeocm e peaepoaa ae ce papaoy oyeo, pe ypaeecx pee, aa opa ccoae poe a aeaecx oex.

Texueca (pymua) paoma xapaepye coo ee peaea poeyp ae apaa pee a x coee. K e ooc: oyee, epaa, xpaee ea oyeao opa, opo a ee oyeo ee eopooa.

aaa ao aeop eeo BM ocae paoo poa popa aa, oecea eoxo exoec ypoe pao APM. Oae ycoe oaoo cooa APM o yaao e eeo e ae e cepco cce oep pao oae, ae, apep, popa caooye pae a aaype, paa a opa opae c aoe a ax cax, exooece pyooa o poe opex o . Ccea oa ya po oepaoro ocyaa, .e. oea a opoc ooae: ya opac o ocya, a pacp oooc eo aapoaoo paoeo eca ..

APM pyoocma upu. Haoee co e opoc o ope cpyyp APM pyooe p. Paccop a a cpyyp ax APM: pacpeeea oaa.

B cyae pacnpeeeo cmpymyp APM pyoocma upu eocpeceo y pyooe axo oo ce, a ocoa yoaa ac APM c ooe cee xpa y ooa cepap. Pyooe ocyece aoe peeoe ypaee pao ope.

oo cmpymyp APM pyoocma upu xapaepa yoaa ayoc, oeceaa aoy pay. p epexoe a oy opaoy exoo oca pyooee p, oay, eecoopao pa pacpeeey cpyypy APM.

yceoo pa p ee pyooco oe ooopae y, a opx c e aoe: oepaoe ypaee pe pee. O ope eope oue mpeou APM pyoocma uu.

1. Hae ocaoo pao a ax, oco ooeo oepao ocepo . K opeeo a a o e ocy opaeoe co , a oe ee paea eocpeo o pyooe cooecyeo ypo.

2. Oeceee pyooe eo eocpece ooa oepaoo oca opa ae ax.

3. Hao pocae opa ope, aao cxooec xapaepca pyoe (paeco poo, apepoao epcopoao), p coo ypoe ee epa a pae, ce ax o pax co.

4. Hae aoox popax cp oecee p pee c acao aaae op cya.

5. Hae aoox popax cpec, peypyx opaaopcy acpay eeoc.

6. Oeceee oepao c c py ca opa peeax opaaoo pyyp p ocoeo c eocpc .

7. pocoa pao p oeo (paec 100%) aeo execx popax .

8. Oeceee ooo aoe a BM oa pee.

a, popaoe oeceee APM pyooe p oo coepa a y oce oecee eoo eeoc (O), oecee p pee (OP), oecee pyx pao (OPP) oecee oya (). Ocooe opaooe aoee yaax occe pacpeeeo cpyype APM . poo cooac oyae c x paox e c epaoa aa ax. Ceye oepy, APM pyooe oe eo yopoa, ec oo opaec o "epa" a c opaoy ay pyoo p, a e o epaoae a ax, o oae opaoe a ceaco.

APM cneuaucma upu. K ceaca p oo oe copyo oa ee opaee, a ae poepo, apeoax a ao pe. Bce o poeccoaa opeeeo cepe eeo, x aoapoae paoe ea o peoa aoy ooo pee cero poo aaecy eyy pao, acao coy ceooy opa. Peya x eeoc, a pao, ec oyem, papaoa ceao. ooa oyea ae opec poecc coae caoo oyea exec poecc ero oope. pe epeo oce aa ooo 40% oeo pee papao oyea. poeccoaa opea ceaca opeee ocoe mpeoau popaoy execoy oecee APM copya p, a eo:

oooc pao c epcoao peo aa ax;

cocooc ee oyaooro aoa c ooe oa opa;

oooc oepoa aapyex poecco c ye aoeoo oa;

oeceee cooo ypo ooyoaoc oc ce.

Ka APM pyooe p, APM ceaca p ae e e oce O, OPP, OK, a ae occey oecee poeccoao eeo (). p occea O oo coep eoo a ceaa (C), oecea eo oceey . Ocooe aaee C coc coepecoa opaa o pao ceaca (poa aca a, epo cepeap, eeo cpao, ayp, epo a-pa ..). B O xo paa aa ax, a ae aop cpe poe ooecx paco oepoa. Ceye o oooc a ax APM ceaa p oecea eceeoy oe. Oo ceac caooeo apya copooa co ay ax.

ae, c oop paoae ceac p, ocoo e oyea (a) xapaep paec cea papy o coa ee aeop, oa, opac, a apo, eca e, oype cpoca peoe .. Beca oe cyae e ee coa a ax p a-

apx cpaoo, accapo, oye, a ae popax ae, oox poo aa, poo, cep ..

occea OPP APM ceaca p o coey coay aae aaoa OPP APM pyoe p. x oe aae ecoc cooa ceaco ce pao opao ec (OT), ooeo cceo e apxa. oce oo coaa e apx aapx eco, aoo, pyyp o oy (). Cea ec cocae epoo oe ocooac eoxo ec apxa, o oopoy c oo cce OT oe ooe o oye. Ccey ee apxa ooe e ca ceac p, a a apx e eo ao. cooae p oca opa p cocae oye aeo copaa pe pyx oepa yeae pe a opecy .

AM mexuecoo paomua upu. Texece pao, a pao, o pyy pay, peyy oe opeex poeccoax . x oco yuu c:

o opa a BM;

oopee oye (ea, papoae, pacca ..);

eee apxo;

opo eeeoo paoeo aa pyooee (cepeap, oo pyooee);

opaa xoe cxoe oyea;

opo ceco eeoc.

Bce y c coo cee eoc oo aapoa, coy APM execoo paoa a ae BM. B cyae oceae e oo cee ooooc yeoc pya, o paoa ao oee paoopao epeco, pacpec yoa aao ce.

B oe cyae APM execoo paa e aoee o, .e. eee ac o ce ypee, opaa. Maccooe pooo pacpocpaee ax APM oe ca o ocox peepo oe pooeoc ypaeecoo pya.

Ocooe peoae popa exec cpea APM execoo paoa coc oecee acao "pyeceo" poooc: yooe pacooee execx cp; cooe aeo yao opa; poc ao c ocaa p epax ecx ooae; ae execx cpe ea papoa oyo; ooo e apxo p.

 

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ABA 1. Cyoc peo opo

1.1. OHTE OPAHOBAHHOO PHKA

1.2. OTTEHE EPT PEBO TOPOB

1.3. BO PEBO TOPOB

1.4. PH COB BOPOEH PEBO TOPOB B POCC B 1990-1991 .

ABA 2. 

2.1. OHTE P CTOP EE BOHKHOBEH

2.2. HK COBPEEHHO P

2.3.

2.4. PA OPAHA PEBO HPACTPKTP

2.5. OHTE, COCTAB PH PEPOBAH PEBO ETEHOCT

ABA 3.

3.1. OHTE COCTAB PEBOO TOBAPA

3.2. XAPAKTEPCTKA PEBOO TOBAPA TOBAPHX P

3.3.  EHHE A PEBO TOBAP

3.4. BATA KAK TOBAP

 ABA 4.

4.1. PHOK EHHX A

4.2. TOBAPH PHOK

4.3.

ABA 5.

5.1. PEBE HEKC

5.2. HAEHTAH AHA B PEBO TOPOBE

5.3.COOBAHE TEXHECKOO AHAA B PEBO EE

ABA 6.

6.1. PETE EH P

6.2. OPAH PABEH PE

ABA 7.

7.1. POKEPCKA ETEHOCT

7.2. EPCKA ETEHOCT

ABA 8.

8.1. PABA PEBX TOPOB

8.2. ACTHK PEBX TOPOB

8.3. OCK PEBOO TOBAPA K TOPA

8.4. TOPOBE OPEH X B

8.5. EXAH BEEH PEBOO TOPA

ABA 9.

9.1. OHTE CEKAX C PEB TOBAPO

9.2.B, OCOEHHOCT OPOK AKEH CEOK HA TOBAPHO, OHOBO BATHO PAX

ABA 10.

l0.1. CHOCT HK KPHA PACETOB

l0.2. EE OCAHE KPHA PACETOB

10.3. OCHOBHE B PCKOB

10.4. KPH PACET HA PHKE EHHX A

10.5. KPH PACET HA PHKE EPCHX KOHTPAKTOB

10.6.0CHOBHE HAPABEH PABT CCTE KPHA PACETOB

11.

11.1.

11.2. CTAHOBEHE EH HA AKOHE

11.3. ETO CTAHOBEH EHOO KPCA

11.4. KCH KAK COCO CTAHOBEH EH

ABA 12.

12.1. PO CPECTB ABTOAT B PEBO ETEHOCT

12.2. ABTOATPOBAHHE PAOE ECTA ACTHKOB PEBO ETEHOCT HA AE B

12.3. ABTOATPOBAHHE CCTE PABEH P

ABA 13.

13.1. OHTE EPCHO TOPOB EPCHOO KOHTPAKTA

13.2. CTOP PH BOHKHOBEH EPCHO TOPOB

13.3. E EPCHO TOPOB

13.4. EXAH PEBO EPCHO TOPOB

13.5. OPOK AKEH COHEH CEOK HA K-POA EPCHX KOHTPAKTOB

13.6. XEPOBAHE PEBA CEK

13.7. EHOOPAOBAHE

13.8. HAHCOBE PACET

13.9. OCOEHHOCT EPCHO TOPOB B POCC

14.

14.1.

14.2. ACHE OOHHE CTPATE

14.2.1.

14.2.2.

14.3. EHOOPAE AKTOP PEBX OOHOB

TOBAPHE P CA KAHA

(CHICAGO BOAD OF TADE)

KACKA KOEPECKA PA (CCAGO ECATILE EXCHAGE)

CPEHEAEPKAHCKA TOBAPHA PA (ID-AEICA COODITY EXCHAGE)

H-OPKCKA TOBAPHA PA (COODITY EXCHAGE IC, (COEX)

- (EW-YOK EKATILE EXCHAGE (YEX)

H-OPKCKA PA KOE, CAXAPA KAKAO (EW-YOK COFFEE, SGE AD COCOA EXCHAGE (CSCE)

H-OPKCKA PA 0 XOK TPCOB (EW-YOK COTTO, CITS AD PETOLE EXCHAGE IC, (YCE)

OHOHCKA EPCHA OOHHA PA (THE LODO ITEATIOAL FIACIAL FTES & OPTIOS EXCHAGE)

OHOHCKA PA ETAOB (THE LODO ETAL EXCHAGE)

 

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