SOVIET RUSSIA. Brief history of the USSR
The beginning of the new year marked the offensive, during which Novgorodor was liberated on January 20, and on January 27, 1944, the Leningrad blockade was lifted (the number of victims of the blockade was more than a million inhabitants). The unfolding spring offensive on the South-Western Front led to the liberation of the Right-Bank Ukraine and Crimea by the troops of the 2nd Ukrainian (I.S. Konev), the 3rd Ukrainian (R.Ya. Malinovsky) and the 4th Ukrainian (F.I. Tolbukhin a) fronts. On March 26, 1944, the Soviet Army reached the state border of the USSR with Romania along the Prut River. On May 9, Sevastopol was liberated, and on May 12, the Crimea.
A further summer offensive led to the liberation of Belarus - Operation Bagration on June 23 - August 29. The troops of the 1st Belarusian (K. K. Rokossovsky), the 2nd Belarusian (G.F. Zakharov,) the 3rd Belarusian (I.D. Chernyakhovsky), the 1st Baltic (I. Kh. Bagramyan) of the fronts, the Center group of the German armies was divided into several parts, systematically destroying the surrounded troops of the anti-tank forces near Vitebsk and Bobruisk. Later, the 105,000th group surrounded by German forces near Minsk (released on July 3) was liquidated. During the operation, 17 divisions and 3 enemy brigades were completely destroyed, and 50 divisions lost more than half of the composition (about 500 thousand people in total). Continuing the offensive, the Soviet troops reached Warsaw, but, suffering heavy losses and exhausted forces in the months-long battles, were stopped.
Timed to the onset of the uprising, the Craiova Army uprising in Warsaw (August 1 - October 3, 1944) ended with a defeat and death of more than 200 thousand Warszawians, primarily because of the inconsistency of the date of the uprising and the real situation at the front. It should be noted that the air supply of the rebels was carried out by the USSR in the sizes exceeding the allied ones, but it only alienated the defeat of the Warsaw people. The military action in support of the rebels in August was impossible, and in September turned out to be ineffective due to the advancement of the Soviet troops in the Balkans and because of the distrust of the USSR government to the émigré Polish government, which led the uprising. Attempts by the 1st Byelorussian Front (K. K. Rokossovsky) to break through to the city in September 1944 ended with the almost complete destruction of the Soviet-Polish (Army Ludow) landing force and the abandonment of the frontal attack of Warsaw.
On August 20, as a result of the Yassy-Kishinev operation, the defense of the German troops in Moldova was broken through. On August 23, the new Romanian government declared war on fascist Germany, and by the middle of September Romania was already liberated from the units of the Wehrmacht. September 15, Soviet troops entered into Sofia. On September 28, 1944, units of the Soviet Army, together with the Yugoslav troops, began the liberation of Yugoslavia. By October 1944, most of Eastern Europe came under the control of Soviet troops. Under these conditions, the German leadership agreed to the creation of the Collaborationist " Russian Liberation Army" (ROA) under the leadership of General A. A. Vlasov . On November 14, 1944, an organizational meeting of the Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia ( CONR) took place and the formation of the ROA began. Of the prisoners of war, division No. 1 (600th division of the Wehrmacht) and division No. 2 (610th division of the Wehrmacht) were formed; division number 3 was in the process of formation.
The total number of troops ROA reached 50 thousand people, including 5 thousand - the air force. March 26 - April 13, 1945 ROA troops participated in battles against the Soviet Army. Having failed, the divisions undertook a “campaign against Prague,” where an uprising of the Prague people broke out, refusing the help of the approaching “repentant Vlasovites”. In May 1945, parts of the ROA between Vienna and Prague were disarmed, and the ROA leadership was arrested and taken to Moscow. In 1946, after the court, 12 POA leaders, headed by Vlasov, were hanged.
The offensive of the Soviet fronts at the beginning of 1945 did away with the main groups of the German troops. The most significant successes of the Soviet forces were achieved during the Vistula-Oder operation (January 12 - February 3). In the course of it, layered non-German defense was hacked as soon as possible and Polish territories were completely liberated. 25 were defeated, 35 enemy divisions were completely destroyed, about 150 thousand German soldiers were taken prisoner.
The success of the Soviet troops was all the more important because the German command was forced to stop the offensive in the Ardennes on the Western Front against our allies. The development of strategic success on this section of the Soviet-German front was continued during the Lower Silesian and Upper Silesian operas. At the beginning of February 1945, Silesia was also occupied in the southern direction of Budapest. In March, the Oder was forced, and the Berlin operation began to unfold. In parallel with it, the destruction of the German troops in East Prussia (under the general leadership of A. M. Vasilevsky), where on April 9, 1945, surrendered the Koenigsberg garrison, went.
Troops of three fronts participated in the Berlin operation: the 2nd Belorussian (Rokossovsky), the 1st Belorussian (Zhukov) and the 1st Ukrainian (Konev). At the first stage on April 16-19, the breakthrough of the non-German Oder-Neusen line of defense followed. From April 19 to April 25, Soviet units divided the enemy troops and surrounded them. On April 25, at the height of the battle for Berlin, Soviet troops met with American units on the Elbe. On April 25, 1945, the storming of Berlin and the destruction of the Wehrmacht surrounded groups began. On April 30, the Victory Banner was raised over the Reichstag . Sergeants M. A. Egorov and M. V. Kantaria set him up. On May 2, the Berlin garrison capitulated.
The last battle with fascism was the Prague operation from May 6 to 11, 1945. Even before Prague was liberated (May 9), the Act on the unconditional surrender of Germany was signed on May 8 in Berlin. These events ended the Great Patriotic War, which began on June 22, 1941.
June 24, 1945 in Moscow, the Victory Parade. Marshal K. K. Rokossovsky, commanded the parade, took the parade G. K. Zhukov. During the ceremonial march, the Victory Banner was carried ahead in a special car, followed by the regiments of the fronts headed by the commanders of the fronts. Following the regiments of the fronts and the Navy, a combined column of Soviet soldiers entered Red Square, and 200 banners of German fascist troops drove down to the foot of Lenin’s Mausoleum under the roll of drums. The Victory Parade put an end to the military-political confrontation of the USSR and Germany during the Great Patriotic War.
The contribution of Soviet military leaders in the defeat of Nazi Germany was marked by high awards of the government. Since 1944, the most significant victories were marked by the award of the Order "Victory". The first award took place for operations in which the Red Army units reached the USSR border. On May 31, 1944, orders No. 1 and No. 2 were awarded in the Kremlin to marshals G. K. Zhukov and A. M. Vasi-Levsky. On July 29, Marshal JV Stalin was awarded the Order of Victory No. 3.
On March 30, 1945, marshals I. S. Konev, K. K. Rokossovsky, and again Zhukov were awarded orders for the poorest-bearing Vistula-Oder operation of orders. On April 19, 1945, Vasilevsky was awarded the second Order "Victory" for successful actions in the Baltic States. A week later, this award was presented to the heroes of the liberation campaign in the Balkans marshals R. Ya. Malinovsky and F. I. Tolbukhin. In May-June 1945, the Order of Marshal L. A. Govorov, Army General A. I. Antonov (Chief of the General Staff at the closing stage of the war) and Marshal S. K. Timoshenko was awarded. July 26, 1945 the second Order "Victory" was awarded to Stalin. In September 1945, after the defeat of militarist Japan, Marshal K.A. Meretskov was awarded the prize.
Orders of "Victory" were awarded, and our allies. Among those awarded were: the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe, American Army General D. Eisen-Hauer, Commander of the Allied Army Group, British Field Marshal B. Montgomery, King of Romania Mihai I, Marshal of Poland M. Roll-Zhimersky, Commander of the People’s Liberation Army Yugoslavia Marshal Josip Broz Tito.
History of the Soviet Union and Russia in the 20th Century