SOVIET RUSSIA. Brief history of the USSR
In 1929, the capitalist world was shocked by the outbreak of the economic crisis began a catastrophic decline in production, wages and employment, the standard of living. The number of officially registered unemployed worldwide has exceeded 30 million people. In the Soviet Union, many assumed that the "Great Depression" would open a new round of pro-Tartar revolutions and lead to an upsurge in the national liberation movement. At the same time, the activities of Soviet diplomacy during the years of the economic crisis were very restrained and cautious. At the post of People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, MM Litvinov, who in 1930 G. G. Chicherin, became increasingly famous.
In the early 30s. disturbing news came from the Far Eastern borders of the USSR. Taking advantage of the fact that the countries of Western Europe and the United States, as well as the Soviet Union were largely occupied with their economic problems, Japan on September 18, 1931 sent its troops into the territory of Manchuria. Japanese propaganda explained aggression by the need to counter the "Bolshevik danger" in China. The USSR was lonely before this threat, and therefore its policy consisted of a series of diplomatic protests, military countermeasures (troop movements to the border) and at the same time conciliatory actions aimed at depriving Japan of an excuse for an attack.
At the turn of the 20-30s. begins the revision of relations between the USSR and the USA. Both representative delegations of US senators and individual engineers come to the Soviet Union . With the help of the latter, large-scale construction is underway in the country. So, X. Cooper, who took part in the construction of the Dnieper, was awarded the Order of Lenin. In the USA, recognition of the successes of the Soviet country is gradually taking place. By 1933, when F. Roosewelt was housed in the White House instead of President Hoover, the question of the diplomatic recognition of the USSR was decided. In the fall, the Senate by a majority of votes expressed the need to take appropriate steps in this direction. On October 10, 1933, President Roosevelt announced his message to M. I. Kalinin with a proposal to resume diplomatic contacts. It was decided to end the "abnormal relationship between the 125 million people in the United States and the 160 million people in Russia."
The world press regarded Litvinovís visit to Washington as the most important event in many years. November 16, 1933 diplomatic relations between the two countries were established. After that, Litvinov made a statement in which he noted that "the lack of relations for 16 years has contributed to the accumulation in the United States of wrong and false ideas about the situation in the USSR. Many people were amused by the spread of the wildest fables about the Soviet Union." The resumption of diplomatic contacts, in the opinion of the majority, meant that "one of the most important political and economic anomalies was eliminated."
In September 1934, the Soviet Union was accepted into the League of Nations and immediately became a permanent member of its Council, which meant its formal return as a great power to the international community. The main priority in the foreign policy of Moscow in 1933-1938. there was a desire to create a collective security system in Europe, providing for non-aggression and non-participation in military conflicts; the establishment of peaceful relations with all countries, including Germany and Japan, but on condition that they give up aggressive policies; supporting the efforts of the League of Nations to prevent and contain conflicts; improving relations with Western countries, including the United States; termination of special "friendly" relations with Germany.
Following this path, the USSR on May 2, 1935, signed an agreement on mutual assistance with France. The articles of the treaty provided that if one of the two states becomes "the object of a threat or danger of attack", the parties "will provide each other with immediate help and support." On May 15, 1935, a similar agreement was concluded with Czechoslovakia.
The policy of Soviet diplomacy was greatly complicated by the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). In the Spanish events that began in the summer of 1936, the USSR initially took the position of non-intervention, joining the 26 powers that had signed the corresponding agreement. However, Germany and Italy did not fulfill the requirements of the non-intervention committee, and in October 1936 the Soviet leadership openly declared its support for the Spanish Republic. In Spain, about 3 thousand volunteers from the USSR fought (pilots, tankers, sailors, representatives of other military specialties, including interpreters of international teams).
By the end of the 30s. The expansion of Germany into Europe developed with particular force. On March 12, 1938, non-German troops invaded Austria and carried out its annexation to the Reich ("Anschluss"). Austrian Chancellor Kurt von Schuschning was arrested and until his release in May 1945 he was in concentration camps. Capturing Austria, Hitler began to prepare the ground for the elimination and dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. On September 30, 1938, Hitler, Chamberlain, Mussolini, and Daladier put their signatures under the Munich Agreement, which allowed the German army to enter the territory of Czechoslovakia on October 1 and complete the occupation of its Sudetenland populated by Germans by October 10.
The Czechoslovak government capitulated, submitting to the joint dictatorship of Berlin, London, Rome and Paris. This shameful deal was the pinnacle of the short-sighted policy of "appeasing" the aggressor. The word "Munich" has since become a symbol of betrayal, the capitulation of Western states to fascism. The Soviet Union did not render assistance to Czechoslovakia, since when signing the treaty between the countries in 1935, a text was included in the text on which obligations of mutual support could act only if "assistance to the party - the victim of assault - was rendered side of France. " The Soviet ambassador to Britain, I. Maisky, noted that Britain and France "washed their hands", and the leaders of Czechoslovakia did not dare to rely on the USSR in these conditions. They preferred to surrender, losing their border fortifications, factories and plants, buildings and warehouses, institutions and organizations located in the Sudetenland. The Czech population of these areas fled in panic, leaving behind all their possessions.
Events in the world have shown that the Soviet Union has virtually no strong and reliable allies in the West and in the East. In the current situation, the greatest danger for Stalin was the possibility of collusion between Western states and Hitler.
History of the Soviet Union and Russia in the 20th Century