SOVIET RUSSIA. Brief history of the USSR
At the end of 1924, conservatives came to power in England again. During the election campaign, they launched a fake - the so-called "letter of Zinoviev", which called for the British Communists to prepare for the uprising. Conservatives refused to ratify the trade agreement with the USSR, signed by the Labor Government.
Anti-Soviet sentiment especially intensified in 1926. The reason was the strike of British miners, which was supported by the Comintern and the Soviet trade unions. In England, it was regarded as the intervention of the USSR in the internal affairs of a great power. In 1927, the Conservative government severed diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, which were restored only in 1929.
In 1927, the Soviet leadership did not rule out the possibility of the worst development of international events. Diplomatic relations with Beijing were severed, where a raid on the Soviet embassy was made (not without incitement of the British). France demanded to withdraw the Soviet term X. G. Rakovsky. In Warsaw, White Guard envoy P.L. Voikov was killed.
Given these circumstances, Stalin declared at the XV Congress of the CPSU (B.) That the "period of" peaceful co-existence "is becoming a thing of the past." He compared the world situation of 1927 with the situation of 1914, which led to the beginning of the imperialist war.
It was not necessary for the Soviet leadership to artificially inflate the danger of a new war. The military threat at that moment was not a myth or a “direct deception” that Stalin needed to strengthen his power.
In an effort to avoid isolation in the international arena, advice * kaya diplomacy maneuvered prudently. In 1926-1927 it was possible to establish close contacts with the southern neighbors of the USSR - Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan. With them were signed treaties similar to the one that was signed with Germany.
In October 1927, the chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, Mikhail I. Kalinin, in one of his public speeches, stressing the emerging rapprochement with the eastern countries, said that with them "we are increasingly entering into economic ties."
Referring to contacts with Germany, Kalinin remembered that relations with the Germans "give mutual positive results, because from year to year the trade turnover, beneficial for both countries, increases."
In August 1928, the Soviet Union joined the Briand-Kellogg Pact, signed in Paris on the initiative of the French Foreign Minister A. Briand and his American colleague F. Kellogg. The 15 leading powers of the world pledged to abandon war as an "instrument of national policy" and resolve conflicts that arise "by peaceful means."
To a large extent, the successes of the Soviet foreign policy of the 20s. were associated with the names of brilliant diplomats, among whom stood out: the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs G.V. Chicherin, as well as L. B. Krasin, M. M. Litvinov, A. A. Ioffe, L. M. Karakhan. To accomplish a variety of missions, some political figures were sent abroad - X. G. Rakovsky, N. N. Krestinsky, and others
The Soviet government, occupied with the problems of restoring the country's economy, conducted a cautious and peace-loving policy during these years, repeatedly taking initiatives with initial arms reductions and, from the end of 1927, general complete disarmament.
History of the Soviet Union and Russia in the 20th Century