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ooa cooo pya


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2.4. o pecae o oaaex aeca

 

Xo oe aeca cao pec ayo epaype c 70-x oo XX ., poe, cae c coepae oo o, ocyac a poe . B peoc cpeeeoe copypoa ocoe pecae o cce ppoe eoea. Hecop a cyecee o oeccoax ococx oe, paec ce o paccapa yepeoc opee aepax a, aooocyoc, yxooe coepecoae, oo a aee peoc ocooo cyecoa eoea.

aee ee pecaex o aece aac Epoe c oa XVIII . o e epo poeo peo, a ae ox ooecx coax e, oycoex pae oeco oo, oopa oppoaac a aya o oace. o o ae aa accecx coe: . yaep (16461714) "Paccyee o coa pacpeee oac", . T. ocoo (16521726) "Ka o cyoc oace", A. Tpo (17271781) "Pae o coa pacpeee oac", A. C (17231790) "cceoae o ppoe pax oaca apoo", C. Cco (17731842) "Hoe aaa oeco oo, oace eo ooe apooacee", . . C (17671832) "Tpaa oeco oo, pocoe oee cocoa, oop opayc, pacpeec opec oaca", A. Kypo (18011877) "cceoae aeaecx po eop oaca", . Kap (18471938) "Pacpeeee oaca".

B XX . ooa aa epaoe eco ccee coax ay (ooo e cpe ay o ppoe), ooec oxo ca opy p aae oecex e. Heoope aop pay o a "ooec epa". Eo poe B. C. Aooo cppye a pepe pao oeecoo aypeaa . eepa, op coye "ooec opa e" p aae ax poe, a cyee pa, ceee ooe, ocae ee . : [eep].

Moe "ooecoo eoea" ooa oy p ax peyao aae pox ooe. Oao pacpocpaee o oe a ooacee coae poecc po e oo pa eopeecx cxe, o ea paec peyaa.

Kpe co ooecoo oxoa, p oopo a ypoe p ce coc aca p, a acaax cpa aca eo ooecoo poca, oce cceoa T. Beea, . pea pyx acco cyoaoro apae. C 60-x roo aeo ea o cex pax cpaax cyeceo ycoc e ooecx, accx, yxox e. Pace co poo paooo aaa "oeca opee".

P aopex yex a oo aeco aepae oaa ayoc coxpae coxc ee pa a pa opae eo ooecoo poca, yee apa a coxpaee ppoo cpe, copae papa ey e oa cpaa. B acoc, oepaec oacoc cya, p oopo e pax cpa, cocae eee 20% acee e, ope ce 80% ppox pecypco coa oay ac poex oxoo.

B 1992 . Po-e-aepo a oepe OOH, oceo opyae cpee pa, a pa oenu ycmouoo paumu, coraco oopo yoeopee opeoce eero ooe e oo ocyecc a ce yyx ooe.

B cooec c ee eoo ec oaae aeca , Ec 5060-x oax aeco oeaoc pee ceo cxo e BB, pxoeroc a ooo e cpa, o oceye aae yac ccea oaaee, oope xapaepy pae copo cyecoa eoea,

Bo opo ooe 80-x oo oppyec oe uec paumu eoeecoo nomeuaa (P), oopo yaec e oo opeee aepax a, o oooc pa eoea, oeceaee ccea paooxpae opaoa.

C 1990 . yyc ae o eax P o cpaa, xo OOH (. [yo]). B x paceax e P opeec a cpee apeece pex oaaee: oaea pooeoc ; ypoe opaoa; pea yeo BB.

Ka oaae (ec) paccaec o opya a:

(2.4.1)

 

e 1 ec aoo a; D aecoe aee oaae; Dmin -aee oaae, poe a , Dmax - oaae, poe a acaoe.

ec ouaeo npooumeocmu uu paccac cey .

cxo ocyx ae oaeo pooeoc aae 90-x oo (o 79 e, e 78, Kaaa pa 77, CA Beopa 76, 72, Meca 70 e), p pacee P 1994 , p ae: acy 85 e, y 25 e. B Pocc oaea pooeoc 1994 . a 63,8 oa. p x ax ec oaeo pooeoc Pocc coca:

 

ec ypo opaoau o cyecye eoe paccaec a cpeeeea ea yx eco, xapaepyx cooeceo ypoe paooc (ec 2/3) o yaxc opace o 24 e (ec 1/3). B 1994 . ypoe paooc pocoo acee Pocc coca 98,4%, a o yaxc opace o 24 e 49,1% (26 . yaxc cpex cx yex aeex p 52,9 . eoe opace o 24 e). p x ax opao aaoe (100% 0%) ec paooc o yaxc 1994 . o opye (2.4.1) coca cooeceo:

 

a eca x eco (cooeceo 2/3 1/3), oyae ec ypo opaoa Pocc 1994 .:

 

Haoee coo cyccoo ec eoa pacea pee peex ooe P eca, xapaepyeo cpeeyeo BB. Aop eo OOH ya, o 1994 . ae cpeeyeoro BB oy aaoe o 40 000 o, o 100 o. aac ae "oeoc" 1 o, CA pax cpaax. cxo oo pooac oppepoa oao e yeoo BB ao cpae, o apey oyaeo cocooc (C). B 1994 . oppepoa pooac p ee yeoo BB, oe 5100 o, p pacee P acy o e p pa 5448 o., a y 100 o. B Pocc yeo BB a 1994 , coca 1044,5 o. p x ax uec yeoo BB o opye (2.4.1) coca:

 

Ha ocoe eco oaeo pooeoc (I.), opaoa (I ) yeoo oxoa (I ) paccaec ec pa eoeecoo oeaa:

 

Pocc 1994 .

 

 

a ea cooecye 119-y ecy 174 cpa, oopx 1994 . paccac P. B 1992 . P Pocc pae 0,849, o cooecoao 52-y ecy; 1997 . o oy oaae Pocc oaaac a 67- ece. Haoee coe ae P 90-x oax y Kaa, o, CA, Hepao, .

B Pocc 90-x oo aoe e a oey aceee aeca oaa poe pecyoc, oo, ecoo ocya (. a. 2.3.1).

Oyoae peoe o coepecoa eo pacea P apae pee ceo a oee oey oey oaae cpeeyeoo oxoa (o ee BB). Po oro oaae, oopa 6070-x oax caac ocoo p oee aeca , eoopao oepaac pe (pe, acep p.). B peeo e eoe pacea eca pa eoeecoo oeaa cpeeyeo oxo oppepyec a yco cpa; ero ea opaaec 5448 o., xo o ox pax cpaax oa cyeceo oe.

B aee ea cpeeyeoo BB e ye yac a oe oaae aeca cpae. Ocooe ae ye yec xapaepca paooxpae, opaoa, eoacoc, coax ooe ppoo cpe.

Cpeeyeo BB opeee oeo cee oeco pecypco ppo, opeex cpee o ee cpa. B acoee pe, ora oe ppox pecypco cepa, oa, apaea a yeee cpeeyeoo oxoa, o cex cpaax oe pec e yye, a yxye aeca .

o oycoeo ooec coa ocec ooecoro . Te ape ppo, yee coao apeoc pecyoc ecoo pa pea e poca BB. yec poac ey e oa cpaa. a ocee 30 e, o a OOH, "o oepooo oxoa 20% eeeo acee eoo apa copaac c 2,3 o 1,4%, ora a o 20% cax oax a poca c 70 o 85%" [acoe ec. 1996. 5 06111.].

Bce a ac ee pax cpa ocoae erae ee pa oo cooeceo ee ee opep. Pace oae oo, o aeco e oe opeec oeco opeex a.

 

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