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ooa cooo pya


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2.3. aa poecco pa a

 

Pae a xapaepyec ee aococo eoea, pooceo, coao, eeyao yxoo cepax, a ae ppoo cpee o e eoeeco eeoc.

ae aeca oo cy epy oepe o opee aepax a, cpee pooeoc pee pya.

coe ee x xapaepc oee oa XVIII ., ora aaoc pooe peee ax opee, a exaec a cao (1768 .), apoa aa aa (1776 .) p. B oe XV . ooo poc pooeoc pya coca A ooo 0,5%. epe 100 e e poca pooeoc oc 1,5% o [peco, C, 7677] pooa yeac XX . Cpeeooo poc pooeoc pax cpaax a epo oa XIX . o ax e coca pepo 2,5%.

B o epo pae cpa aao Epo Ceepo Aep xapaepoaoc y ee: 1) yeee oaeoo pee pya; 2) poco opee aepax eeyax a.

B A aoo 1850 . eoc paoe ee orpaea 60 (10,5 o y 7,5 o cyoa). B pa 12-acoo pao e ycaoe 1848 . B Pocc paoa ee cocaa: 1900 67 , 1913 . 58,7 . Bocacoo pao e 41-acoa paoa ee ycaoe a aoax . opa ap 1914 . B acoee pe eoc paoe ee CA pax cpaax Epo cocae 3340 . eero oaae oyc 46 ee.

aa opee ex a xapaepyec cey a. Ka ca A. C, cepee XVIII . "... xe aa a pocoo apoa" [C. 1962. C. 71]. ...ooa ee ypae o oce coepeoe [Ta e. C. 106].

co poc aococo ee cpa aao Epo oee co opo oo pooo ea. a ee oeo poec ee apa paoeo pee, oopoe eoxoo p cooecyx eax oxoax, popee oapo ycy. Tae ae peypo yye cy eeo oo Kee. B acoc, o y 1 r aca, 1949 . e P oe opaoa 3,5 ., a 1990 . 0,5 . B eo a 1949 1990 . opeee aepax a P poco e eue e 3 paa. pepo aa e cya xapaepa ouca pax cpa Epo. B CA a epo 19501970 , ypoe opee aepax ar yec pepo 2 paa. oce oo poc aococo cyeceo aec oe 80-x oo ae ecoo eue, e aae 70-x [peco. 0'e. C. 32]. Oo aex p oo cao cyeceoe peee eo poca apaoo a a ea poca poo-eoc 19601980 r, [Ta e. C. 156]. B 90-x oax oxo acee pax cpa yeac, o ex paepax, e 70-e o, B cpee a ocee 100 e x cpaax yeoe opeee ex ar yeaoc pepo a 1,5% o.

Hecop a oee epo ce ypo , c cepeu XIX . o cex paumx cmpaax aaemc pocm aococmou npu yeeuu oameoo peeu mpya u yyeuu eo ycou. a yaa epo cpe pooeoc ocac oe. oo ceye, o eaopoe oece pya a opa eoea paec e oo yec.

Bao ya, o o oceeo pee poc aococo pax cpaax paac yee oea ppox pecypco, coyex cpee a ooo e x cpa.

B cyoc, eeoc opeaee pepaee coe a apaea a o, o eoe cooa oe aaco ppo, ocoeo e, aa, eao, eca . . Xo oe opee oecea cee apa epr aepao a ey oeoo ea, oee oeco pecypco, opeex e pax cpa, e yeaec. B oeo cee, poc BB o e o oe, a yeee oeca pacxooax ppox pecypco.

Taa opea xoceo eeoc pea oy, o aac ox o oex coaex oaac coe. B acoc, p coxpae ex eo o e aaco oo aeeo coa epr cp xa a ecoo ece. ooy CA oa e cyeceo orpaea; opeoc e opac ocoo a ce opa.

Hapy c cepae aaco ox ppox pecypco ce oee oy caoc ooece ocec eeoc eoea. Koeco yecoo aa, eeoo poe, pacop o coa, oco ao e, o eca, oa oopx ocoo copaaec, e ycea eo ooa. ec a aaaec aocepe, coaa apo e, oop oe pec oaoy ee aa. ocoo yeaec ooo co aocep, c ao o eaopx ocecx ye.

Ececee ooece cce e e cpac c epepaoo opacaeo oea oxoo, o a peceae ocoea P o oxpae opyae cpe aaea B. . aoa-aa, eoeeco ye yoo 70% ececex occe, cocox epepaaa . o oa XIX . ppoa cpaac c epaae oxoo. ae aac caac, oop p coxpae ex ee pee cepee XXI . oao oeco aacpoe. B acoee pe oe oycoo oec a ocepy pee 810 pa.

ooreca cya Pocc ae xye, e pax cpaax: oeco epx oxoo a ey oeoc poy y ac oe 1,52 paa; pe acee cae oece pex eec, 10 pa peaee peeo oyce oepa (K), o pacxoo a oxpay ppoo cpe 19961997 r. cocaa eee 0,1% BB, oa a CA o oaae pae 1,5 2% BB [acoe ec. 1996. 28 op].

p eca eaopx coax oco acee Pocc e ocoae aacpooc ooeco cya. o o, acoc, aaa oeo a opoc: "Ka poeo coeo eeo aococo B oo oepoa, o peopa yyy ooecy aacpoy?" Oe cey: ec aacpoa oaec epe 20 e, o 50% pecoeo oo a 10% cox oxoo; ec epe 50 e, y e cyy oo a 25% opoex, a ec epe 100 e, 40% pecoeo ooe eo e oepy, a ocae 1% oxoa ee [Xeca. C. 88].

oorece poe ycyyc cyecy eoa pacea apoooecx oaaee, oopx e opaaec yep o xoceo eeoc. oee oro, e oe o yep, e, o cyecy eoa, oue BH [Ta e. . 89].

Heaope ooece poo oycoe e, o cyape oxo pe pacy pepo 2 paa cpee, a ocoo oace oxo 3 paa cpee, e oeco poy [yce. C. 70]. ooee oe cyeceo yxyc p oe eo ooecoo poca paaxc cpaax a ae ooec "px" exoo (o oro aaox e poccc ).

Oo aex ee pa a ec poc npecmynocmu o cex cmpaax. p o pax cpaax e poca pecyoc cyeceo e, e paaxc (c. Pc. 2.3.1).

o a B. yeea, " oceee ee pecyoc x cpaax pooaa pac: a eppop eo CCCP pepo a 25% (1994), oeeo epa (P P) a 13 (1994), o pa a 11 (1993), A ce a 5% (1992). B eo Beopa, o a epoa, oeco apecppoax pecye opoco c 1% a 100 eoe 1950 . o 5% 1990 . o 10,6% 1992 . ec pe pecyoc a ocee 3040 e yeac 34 paa, o a eppop eo CCCP 68 pa, Beopa 67 pa, o pa 56 pa, epa 34 paa, o 1,52 paa" [yee. 1996. C. 38].

 

 

 

1 paume c; 2 ce cpa; 3 paauec cmpa.

cmou: yee, 1996 . C. 95.

Puc. 2.3.1. Te poca pecyoc

 

 

Pocc aeo oepeae ce cpa o cy aex a 100 c. ee. o oaae cocae: Pocc 694 (oee oa aex), pa 392, 356, oca cpa Epo eee 100 [ec. 1997. 3 apa].

o a eepoo oopa OOH a 19851990 ., ppoc pecyoc pe cocae cpee 5% o [yee.1996. . 95].

Ka oeae o aop, "caa cee pecyoc eoopx ocyapcax oe , copee ceo, cee, e aooepoc, cee pee. Oae ycpee oe yeo (!) pecyoc pe peeax 68 c. a 100 c. acee e peao e. ... 2000 . a ee, a peoaa eopa, ye ooo 7 p. ee, o o oaae, o a o oo o eoeecoe cooeco ye poypoa o 400500 . apecppoax pecye. x aecoe co c yeo aeoc oe 23 paa .

"... pa eaoc. B ao, apep, ooceo aooyo opoe, a ep, 1994 , o yeo 15 850 pecye a 100 c. ee. Ta opao, ocee poopyeoo ypo o py eo 2000 . oe peao

C poco pecyoc ee oeceo oacoc po co oppepye aa acpax x paoapye, aopax e, ca, apoa, ocoa, caoyc, pocy, poeca, eca, pacaa cee, eoo, eco ecpopoc eaopoc, eaaa pocx ee, cxecx paccpoc pyx oox e eepa. Ec oee ocoa, o ae o eaoe oeee e ooe e yy opaca, a a, pacp py ay . Bo co cyae o paa y ac e coo-y ax oaaec ce poeoc coax yco" [yee. 1996. C. 9495].

Ocoeo eaop poo pecyoc Pocc, a pae eoopx pyx rocyapcax. B Pocc a eeo ceop pxoc ooo 50% BB, a pae a o cocae 60% [acoe ec, 1996. 17 o.]. o opoca oeceoo e, Pocc pecyoc c 1994 . a a epoe eco cpe poe, oyx aceee (c, a. 2.3.1).

 

 

Taua 2.3.1

 

Bopoc: "Hacoo Bac ecoo ceye poe:" (% o ca opoex)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

poe

 

o

 

a

 

Oe eco-o

 

ecoo

 

He oe

 

oce e eco

 

Poc pecyoc

 

1994 1990

 

1

5

 

70,4

43,8

 

26,2

30,5

 

2,8

0,9

 

0,6

12,8

 

ocyoc aeceoo ecoo ocya

 

1994 1990

 

2

6

 

68,3

49,9

 

30,8

23,4

 

4,1

20,4

 

 

 

1,1

10,9

 

 

 

epaoa

 

1994 1990

 

3

13

 

48,2

19,6

 

39,2

25,0

 

9,1

22,1

3,5

28,5

apee opyae cpe

 

1994 1990

 

4

1

 

47,7

63,9

 

40,1

22,9

10,4

9,0

2,0

3,3

Kaeco ooo opaoa

 

1994 1990

 

5

8

 

3,2

35,1

 

38,7

34,0

 

14,1

11,1

 

3,5

12,6

 

Kaeco Baeo

 

1994 1990

 

6

11

 

41,0

22,7

 

37,5

34,2

 

18,3

20,6

 

3,1

21,0

 

poa Ca

 

1994 1990

 

7

7

 

37,2

35,7

 

41,0

23,3

 

 

15,8

12,7

 

 

5,1

24,0

 

Tpacope poe

 

1994 1990

 

8

14

 

32,5

19,4

 

45,3

39,5

28,2

25,6

3,3

12,5

 

Meaoae o

 

1994 1990

 

9

10

 

29,6

28,9

 

43,5

22,7

 

20,5

12,0

 

4,6

35,9

 

Ace

 

1994 1990

 

10

15

 

9,6

12,9

 

21,7

13,3

 

36,0

18,0

 

23,4

31,0

 

Aoo

 

1994 1990

 

11

16

 

28,2

33,6

 

37,0

23,7

 

25,9

21,2

 

8,4

18,8

 

Heocao poyo

 

1994 1990

 

12

2

 

21,2

52,6

 

41,7

31,5

 

28,6

12,2

 

8,3

3,61

 

pocy

 

1994 1990

 

13

12

 

20,2

21,9

 

32,3

15,7

 

33,1

20,2

 

11,9

35,9

 

Heocao oapo eoo ooa

 

1994 1990

 

14

4

 

14,7

47,1

 

41,3

38,4

 

38,6

10,9

 

5,1

2,4

 

Heoca peeo epo eoxooc

 

1994

1990

 

15

3

 

14,5

48,1

 

47,2

34,4

 

31,5

13,3

 

46,7

3,6

 

cmo: a. C. 16.

 

 

Ta opao, pae a xapaepyec cey oco poecca:

1. ae poc pooeoc pya aac c oa XVIII . B ocee ece pooeoc yeaec pax cpaax cpee a 22,5% o.

2. pooeoc paoeo oa a ocee 200 e copaac pax cpaax oee e 2 paa. He ocoa oaa, o oopo epcee ooo aeee copaee pee pya. B eoopx pax cpaax (CA, eap) aaec pooooa ee yeee pooeoc paoeo oa.

3. Cpeeyeoe opeee aepax a pax cpaax a oceoe epo poco 34 paa. B oceee ecee poc opee aec ccae e oee 2% o.

4. Poc acee cyeceo aec a epo poopyec a ypoe 11,2% o.

5. Cpe pooeoc a ocee 200 e poca pax cpaax oee e 2 paa, poo oo oaae poope cece yxyaeoc coco ppoo cpe yee ca aoea (C p.), oope oa cac ee.

6. Koeco oxoo pooceo eeoc eeoo yeaec pepo a 5%, a oeco ocoo oacx oxoo 78%. aac ox aex pecypco ppo p coxpae ex ee oy aoc a ecoo ece.

7. Poc pecyoc aaec o cex cpaax, ocoeo aoee pax. o a OOH, ae o pecyoc pe ye pac a 5% o. Bo ox cpaax, o ce Pocc, pecyoc caa poeo oep o.

paec aa ocox poecco pa a pecaea a pc. 2.3.2.

Ta opao, pae a xapaepyec a oe, a opae ee. K ep oocc: poc opee aepax ar, cee oc paoeo oa poc cpee pooeoc ( pax cpaax). Ko op poc pecyoc pax cpaax, oepea e ooecoro poca 23 paa e poca acee 35 pa; yxyee ppoo cpe, e epaa oopo oe 2-4 ; .

 

 

1 nompeeue amepuax a; 2 npoymuocm;

3 pe amocmu paomo; 4 npupoa cpea;

5 npecmynocm; 6 omxo

Puc 2.3.2. aa ocox poecco pa a

 

: ooa cooo pya

 

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