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 ooa cooo pya >>

 

ooa cooo pya


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4.5. Koe eoc pya

 

eeoc, coepaa ee o, paoaa opeca, aeo eee poca arococo apoa, e co coec py o aao exoo. B c c ao ycao p, -a oopx o oo opee (pya ce) peyaax pao paoaaopo, opeaee, caee pyx pecaee opeco eeoc oe oeo ee, e y ex, o a ocoo ά-pyo.

B paoax o cop ay poc ec pepo peoo oe eoc pooca o e ox execx opaaox e. Oepao, o apoa aa . aa oeca apa a ayy, oope or cpae a c peecyy e cop eoeecoo oeca, Moropa poc eoc ca cece opee . Ceco ao-a (1867), . aepo eooro ae (1885), P. ee ae a eo oe (1892) . . Kaecee ee pooce oa aroap e oo exec, o opaao e. pepa oy ey pa . opa o opaa accooo yca aooe, . Teopa o paoaa pyox poecco p.

Bo opo ooe XX , pax cpaax cyeceo ycopc poecc aecex ee e oo pooce, o cpyype acee: peo yeac o ceoc paox pec, a o ax aye, opaoa, paooxpae, cepe ycy opoca.

Ta, 3% acee CA, aoo ceco eco xoce, ooc caae cpay poooce oeceae aee cope oca. B ae cpae oe 80-x oo o ax ceco eco xoce cocaa ce 20%. Kpoe oro, cecoxoce paoa peac o opoa oeocyax. Ta o peao ceco xoce o ao ooo 25% acee cpa. p o oac aea ac epa, paceoo ooo aca, ca ..

B eo oe peya cecoxoceoo pooca CIA c yeo aeca poyo e eee e 2 paa oe, e y ac, a ceoc ax 8 pa ee. Ceoaeo, peaoe ocaae oeeceoo cecoo xoca o o opac CA o pooeoc pya cocao e eee 16 pa, Oao ecoc pya aepacx epepo paec e oe e ecoc pya oxoo oee e 2 paa. ooy p oee e 15-paoo pa pooeoc pya ao ca o, o cecoxoce py CA oee exapoa, oeppoa, ye opaoa aeo oe cee coye oce ay. B ao ee cecoxoceo poy CA pyx pax cpa e eee oo ee cooc cocae eeya py ooo, xo, eepo, aeao, ooco, eeopooo. Koeo, ao ya oee arope aece yco pa cpa, acoc CA. Ho oa aooepoc o oo e eec. Ta, e, e aece oee yco aeo xye, e cpee o ae cpae, o ax ceco eco xoce cocae 5% p paec oo caooecee poya aeo yeo, e y ac, aeca p oee aopo ooeco ocaoe.

Aaoa cya aaec poeoc. B pax cpaax o paox oe coc acee ee, e y ac, a oapo ycy oe, a aoe x aeco a opo e. ec ae ocoa pa ypoe eeyaa pya, e, oop oc yee eep coae poy. p o o pacxoo a oe opeee opeaee paoaaopo e peae 20% coo ooecoo ea o x eeoc.

oo cpa po opeco eeoc oo oe o ppocy oeoo poya a ce execoo popecca. a ppy ooy XX . pax cpaax a oo aopa pec 50% oeo ppoca aoaoo oxoa. Cooecya ea eo CCCP cocaa 1015%. B Pocc 90-x roo a execoo popecca pae oo ca ee ee.

B oe XX . opeca eeoc aoe epe opeee oaco cpa ypoe aococo ee aoa. ooeca peaoc peye epeocca pecae o pooeo epooeo pye, a ae o exae oppoa apooo oaca.

poe aa ye y eoeeca a poe coe. B paoax o cop ooecx ye oo oeaoc, o pa pooeoo pya ep ycao . Ke (16941774) ocoae opaeco eop oeceoo oaca.

Ocoa e .Ke, oopo cey paec ce ocae ooe opaecoro apae, oe poca coco o, o coo "co po-ya", .e. oo, o ocaec cepx epe poca, ec e, oee, c ppo. Oca aae eop (pe "c" ppoa, "pa" ac). Ka ca . Ke, "...o eceoc e oe poc oxoa, poe e o [Ke. C.533].

opa cxo oo, o pooe ec py, oop coae "c poy". .Ke pae oeco a p acca: pooe, coceo . K epoy accy o ooc ex, o opaaae e, eocpeceo a ceco xoce; o opoy opo, eeaee, epo, .e. ex, o aee ee, peey cex ocax, o ce paox, aaco opoe.

oa a cpao ac cpyyp oeca o, o, o c .Ke, oo pece oya o e oe, o o ee . Paoe e epepaaa o, o oyeo o e, ppo, coa poo coo, coo ope.

Cyeceo o-oy paoa oe pooeoo pya A.C. O e co yee oaca oeceo oeo pye o poocy aepax a. ooy oo ao py o ooc pooeoy. o oy ooy o ca: "Tpy eoopx cax yaaex coco oeca, ooo pyy oax cy, e poo ao cooc e apeec e peayec ao eo cyecye peee oape, oye poa, oop pooa cyecoa o pepae pya a oop oo o oy oo paoe oeco pya. Hapep, ocyap co ce co cye oa oepa, c ap o peca coo epooex paoo. K ooy oy e accy o oece a eoope cax cepex ax, a eoope cax eocex poecc ce, pc, pa, cae coo poa, aep, a, ya, oepe e, ao p." [C. C. 245]. peeoe ee acca oeco oo o cx op peoaae coa oca e o ox ooecx paoax.

B oeeceo epaype eoe pe ococy o pecaee o o, o pooe ec y cepe aepaoo pooca, coa e oo eoxo, o pao poy. Taa o e oe cac oocoao (. Pa. 3.3).

To, o A.C K.Mapc oa o npououme mpyo, ee aeaoo oeceoo pae, o npououmeocm mpya o ce peea epac oeco poy ey pee, a cee yac pooce paooo poya. ooy eco epo "pooe" ("epooe") py, ye yope ep "peae" ("epeae") B o cyae cyoc o eo oeceoe paee caoc . B ooaex opy (3.3.4) o oaae, o:

 

 

Ceo oe pooeoo pya, o-oy, oe peca oo copec epec. paec ao oop o peaeo epeaeo pye a cepe aepaoo pooca, a eeyao cepe p coa poee ay, epayp cycca.

Pa eoc oex o pya oo oc pa cooc oex pao, a ceoaeo, apaax a oooy paox cea. acoc ey apaa a opaoae eoc pya, ecoeo, cyecye. Ho oa e oe oc oeece a, oa c oe cpo opaoae oca axc peyao cycce, aye opeaece. Bce eo o, o cocooc opecy, xo oaec eoopoy pa, o o e poopoaa eoc oye. eco, o Moap co yae ec ee opace. Cx C. Ecea P. epca ep poo o, xo x aop e e oyeo o aoeo cpee . ec cya, ora paoe caoc aopa opee, a oop eyceo pyc ee ocpyopce po. Bce o oaae, o ec eo, pao oaee opec py o peaepoaoo o o, o aa aao, "cpo oe", opec cocooc.

poe eoc pya eocpeceo ca c eope cooc (eoc).

p aae cooc pee ceo eoxoo opee ee peaoe coepae, paec cooc poya opayec a cya apa a coyee pecypc. apa pya xo cooc e oppyeo a pe e ex a, opeex ce, o po oceo pa yace coa aoo poya. eo coco oeecee pya oape.

B pax cpaax apa ά-pya yea cooc, o e coa paoo cooc. Oa oppyec β-pyo a peya poe opecx cocooce. Hoe aye, exece, xyoecee, pepaece e oecea opacae cooc o y apae. Bo-epx, poc acee cpeee oe aeca po yee oeo oea coyex ppox pecypco, o ce a ce ox coo cp. Bo-opx, oe e oecea cee yeoo pacxoa pecypco a ey oeoo ea. Cyap peya paaec yee cooc oeceoo poya a ce oca ox coo pecypco yye cooa cyecyx.

 

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