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ooa cooo pya


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13.3. Teopeece oco peoc coaoro apepca

 

Coaoe apepco o eoo, op eo coacoa apepo coax py oecee x ocpyoo aoec. cooc oe-ceo cce eoc poo oo ac pee ceo o xapaepa aoooe pepaee paoax o ay.

poe coaoo apepca oo paccapac cxo oceoeoo oa cpa aao Epo, ocoeo P. Oao ocoe e eoacoa epeco aaco paox copypoa aeo pae.

o o cyoc coaoro apepca, eoxoo cxo cop aoooe ey oco acca oecex cce. B eee cee ooe aaocec (pa paoae, peoce eoa, paoe ). K cy aex co poo cop oocc occa pao, pecce o, coae peo. Too co opo oo XX . pax cpaax pepac o acceoo ee oeceoo cpo.

papee coax oo ayo epaype peaaoc a pao pax cocoa:

1) yoee aco coceoc a cpeca pooca, ocyapceoe ypaee pep;

2) coacoae epeco coceo aex paoo,

ep y aoee oceoaeo pae apcca, oope cxo eppoc epeco aaco paox. o ocoo oepaoc ae ep-oo. Ta, peco peey a "Kaaa" ec c oyee ca, o peee eeoo ooeco epaype ep Arbeitgeber (paooae) Arbeitnehmer (epy paoy) acpy ooe cyaa [Mapc. C. 28].

Boooc coacoa accox epeco ocyac paoax aopo pao oeco opea: coaco, yoco, epao, xpcacx coaco p

Oo epx pao, ocex cyoc yco oeceoo coac, ec "0ece ooop" . . Pycco. B o paae, oyoao 1762 ., pac-capaec oeco, ocoaoe a aoax, epe oop ce pa oope coxpa y cooy aoo paaa. o e Pycco, coepeoe aooaeco e coa peyae op ap, e oeca oy cya oo o coeo e, ao pac peyae eca, ocyapco oo eo o eppop (opae eap). Ba ycoe yopoa oeceoo ooopa ec co ypoe paaco peoc. Po aooaeca oepa oe copee Pycco. B acoc, . Ke ca, o e , a ao o ypa ocyapco.

poe coacoa epeco coax py epa yax paeco eeoc . ype, A. Ce-Coa, P. Oya. x e oxaa aee cep oeca: pooco, oe, pacpeeee, ocae, oyee, p. B acoc, ype peara e c oxo ey aao, aao pyo poop: 4/12; 3/12; 5/12. Xo aae aop oee 150 e c oeo p a "cpaa", a "cea", x po pa coaoo apepca c copeex o pecaec oo aoee ax.

Pao ype, Ce-Coa, Oya oaa cyeceoe e a ox ooco, o ce a ooo pyex eooo XIX , oa Capa M, caeo ococo peoe ype oeceee ocpyoo copyeca pya aaa. . C. M , o-oy, o epx, o cooa ep "ap-epco" coax ooe. O ca o oy ooy: "... ey xoea paoa yy oceeo ece ooe apepca (oepyo a. . .) oo yx op: eoopx cyax pooe oeee paox c aaca, pyx... oeee paox ey coo" [M. T. 3. C. 100].

Cyeceoe ae yeeo poea copyeca pya aaa paoax A. Mapaa, oop oepa, o " paox ac o aacpoa pya aao" [Mapa. 1. 2. C. 247]. Ha o e cpae A. Mapa e: "..aoap aay a poo pao aaoo pa aec, oeaec ae oecee e o ox ooex ye, e p pee peea. Copyeco (oepyo a. . .) ey aao pyo co e oaeo, a copyeco ey pa aa".

ocoy ocoo e coaoo apepca ec oeceee ycooo oooo pa oeca, ao opeeee yco, p oopx aoe pae oe ca oo. yco paccope ee 20-x oax po Copo. O ycao, o ycooc oeceo cce ac o yx ocox apaepo: ypo oca acee cee epea oxoo. e e ypoe e oe pa ey oa e, e oypee p cepe ac epeey coceoc c cooecy paec ec [Copo. 1990].

Co o . Copo cppoa pepa cop peeo pa, cpex eo, cop ep, oee . p o o cex cyax oaaoc, o eoo o eo oce axaa ac ocaoo cpo e co ypaee yee, caoc oa p aa pe ox xoe. Cyeceoe e a pae e coaoo apepca oaa eee ooc Be Pee (1899 1966), Ape Mep-Apa (19011978) r pxap (18971977). aop coa oe coaoo pooo xoca, oopa cxo coea oype, ooeco coo pepaee ao po ocyapca epepacpeee oxoo opaa coao cep.

Teopeece ace coaoo pooo xoca oycoe acceco poeo ycaoe y ocyapca ycox oo, ypaeo "eo pyo" pa. a poea ocyaac ee A. Co, oop oaa, o ocyapco oo aac ocoo oepae oeceoo opa ao cpa. ae oop, C eo oceoae oo rocyapcy po "ooo copoa" (paee . acca).

Xo cee eaeca rocyapca ooy pax cpa paa, acoee pe ce cpa e cce coaoo oecee, oo epao, x peooo . . B cyoc, o cex pax cpaax ecy cce coao pooro xoca. B P eaeco ocyapca epepacpeeee oxoo ocy-ecec oee ao, e CA. o poec, acoc, oee cox caax aoo o p pep.

Opaa coaoo apepca P ec o aex aceo opaa coaoo p . Ooe apepca ocyecc a ey paooae paoooyae, a ey ooe (p opaa ecooo oecee).

ece copeex cce coaoo apepca eecoopao oea c o peex e yco ycooc ocyapca, copypoax . Copo.

epoe x yco ypoe oca acee. Oo xapaepyec , o acoee pe acooe oco ee pax cpa oecee ae, e, peea epo eoxooc. B P ce 80% cee e aoo, eo eeop, cpa aoa, ecoc, oecee eeoo . Bo cex pax cpaax ecy popa o oo epao, aooecee, aa pecape.

Bopoe ycoe ycooc epea oxoo. B oce pax cpa pae oxoo 20% aoee ex oax cee e peae 10 pa. Ocoy ac acee cocae cpe acc, oop ee eca co ypoe acoo e coe paaoy ee oeceo cce, ocoeo epeey coceoc.

Ta opao, ec cxo yco . Copoa, o pax cpaax e ooecx peoco ax-o cyecex apye ycooc oeceoo cpo.

oo ooecx cyece ae cxooece peoc yype pa ycooc ocyapca. B ocee ece aceee pax cpa opepoao a oc coax opocco. Ocoa ac ee peoae pea oecee poe paoacec, e paoce, a ocoe pa, opeeex cyecy aoa. aoap eoo coaoo apepca poco pyre pecae paoax o ay ca ocoaa co oeceoc e oo a ypoe apaoo a, o a eoc xoca.

Xo poe coaoo apepca ae ceo paccapac a ocoe oa cpa aa Epo, copyeco pepaee aeoo epcoaa xapaepo ae o ox opopa CA. Pyooe cepo eco opopa "Co" Ao Mopo eoopao oepa, o ypaee eo po ocyecec o py "ce oa ce" o e poco pace coa. a co eca ea opaaoa ccea, acaa aoo paoeo eepa ya o epecax p, a o cocex. oce oa p yxye eoo oyp ea ce oooe, o coxpa epcoa, e oyc yoe. Ec pa ep y, o oee apa aaec c epxa acpao ec.

ooeco ocoo coaoo apepca ec oea aa pax coax py coae oxoa pep aoaoo oxoa cpa. p poec pee ceo cepax apaex peaa paeca oooce. Oe x ceye:

1) pacpeeee oeceoo oaca poyo pya;

2) aa ococa yeca paa;

3) ocyoc opaoa eco oo;

4) pae cooae ppox cocooce;

5) oeee a pax pya, oapo pecypco;

6) yace ypae pepe, eeoc peoax ocyapcex opao ac.

ep x aceo aco coc paecy yece . Taa o aoee o paea yaoc apo: "Bce oe opoy". cepe, poee a paaa cpa eo coacecoo aep, oaa, o opea ocyapca a aoe oae cpaeoc ee y. Bece c e ooceo eoo py e, oeex peoo pyo ee, paeco yece opee oe e oo oco, o eo. pepa oy cy xoca peox o.

Pacpeeee oxoo cyeceo ac o x cpyyp. B oe cyae e oxo oppyc pex ocox coo: py, coceoc oecee . x aa c. pa. 10.1. Haoee cpae oo caec pacpeeee o pyy. a ocee 100 e pax cpaax o oxoa o pya oecex oo yec p oopao oe aeca . o oaae, o oee cpaeoe pacpeeee oxoo cococye pocy eoc. Bece c e poea o-a cpyyp oxoo ee aea o pee.

epea oxoo cpae cyeceo ac o ocyoro ypo ooecoo coaoo pa, o ce o pooeoc pya, xapaepc aococo, cee eopaa oeca. B peyae orx cceoa ycaoeo, o ypoe epea oxoo acee pax cpaax cyeceo ee, e paaxc. ae oop, e eee cpaa, e oe pa ey oa e.

Bopo ace cpaeoc paecmo ooocme aume ocmoucma u uyecma paa. pee cero o xapaepyec e, o aooaece cex oax cpa, oex Meyapoo opraa pya pyrx oyeax eyapox opraa oepaec paeco cex paa epe aoo, eoxooc a x ec, ococa, yeca. Peaoe coee x peoa copeeo oece ee e oeceaec oaoo epe cex rpaa.

Pa oxoax coceoc cyeceo a ocmynocm opaoau u euuco . Oao ce rpaaa oax cpa oeceaec oooc oye cpeero opaoa ocox ecx ycyr.

Paecmo ooocme paumu u ucnooau npupox cnocoocme eoea ec oo ax xapaepc cpaeoc oecex . B oax cpaax oooc ceac aeo oe, e aae XX . paee. ocoy peaa cocooce aeo cee ac o coaoro pocxoe, opaoa oca, ocoy o cepe ee coxpaec epaeco. euee oro a epaeca cooecye epeca e oo ex, o oaae ou cocooc, o cero oeca.

Cocooc eoea c ae ooecx pecypco (c. . 3). Peya eeoc e, oaax o opeaec, pepae-c, ay, xyoece cocooc, a pao, e cpeero ypo. Cooeceo e ypoe . Baec cocooc cyccy, copy eoop pyr a eeoc a ypoe oxoo oe, e opaoae coaoe . ooy pax cpaax ppoe cocooc ca oo aoee ax p epaeca. Tao epaeca p payo aoroo oe cooecye epeca cero acee cpa.

B ycox poo oo cpaeoc aco paccapaec a paecmo ooocme a pax mpya, moapo u pecypco. paec o o, o oaec o cpaeo oypee, poe peoc oopo paccapac paoax o oe ooeco eop.

Booocmu yacmu ynpaeuu npenpumuu, a mae emeocmu opao acmu c a aceo cpaeoc eopaeco oce. O oo paccapac c o pecaeca pax coax rpy opraax, pacpeex pecypc, oxo pyre aa. Bpaee epeco cex coe oeca, eycoo, eoxoo. Bece c e oce aoue ooeco coao eoc oeo cee aa e apea pecaeca, a cocooc, opae eoe aeca opex oce. pa ypae coa poecca a a pepx, a oece aoee cyecea aoc poe cpaeoc eoc. Ka oaae o, c oo copo, poc eoc oeceae yco oe cpaeoc oecex ooe, c pyo yoeopee opeoc cpaeoc pae ay po oa poca eoc.

 

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