SOVIET RUSSIA. Brief history of the USSR

 

  The coat of arms of the USSR and the coats of arms of 15 allied Soviet republics

"HISTORY OF SOVIET RUSSIA"

 

The proposed textbook gives an idea of ​​the main events, processes and laws of the historical development of Russia in the Soviet period. The book helps to comprehend differently interpreted events of the modern history of the state helps to develop the skills of independent thinking when relying on historical facts.

 

The manual is designed for applicants, students and all interested in the history of the country in the 20th century

 

 

The main events of the Russian history of the twentieth century:

 

 

 

1914 - Russia's entry into the First World War.

 

1916 - Brusilovsky breakthrough.

 

1917 - February Revolution. The abdication of Nicholas II from the throne. Provisional Government. October Revolution . The beginning of the Civil War (until 1922-1923).

 

1918 - Overclocking of the Constituent Assembly. Brest World.

 

1919-1921 - Soviet-Polish War

 

1921 - Transition to the New Economic Policy.

 

1922 - The formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics .

 

1924 - Death of V. I. Lenin. Adoption of the First Constitution of the USSR.

 

1928 - The First Five-Year Plan (until 1932). Industrialization.

 

1929 - The beginning of complete collectivization.

 

1932 (autumn) 1933 (spring) - Hunger in the USSR .

 

1936 - The Stalinist Constitution of the USSR was adopted.

 

1939 - Soviet-German non-aggression pact . Soviet-Finnish war (until 1940).

 

1941 - The beginning of the Great Patriotic War. Battle for Moscow.

 

1941 (09/08) - 1944 (01/27) - The Siege of Leningrad .

 

1942 - Battle of Stalingrad .

 

1943 - Battle of Kursk. Tehran Conference.

 

1944 - Operation Bagration - the liberation of Belarus from the Nazis.

 

1943-1944 - Mass deportations of the peoples of the North Caucasus and the Crimea.

 

1945 - Yalta Conference . The victorious conclusion of World War II. Soviet-Japanese war.

 

1946 - The beginning of the Cold War.

 

1949 - August 29 there was a successful test of the atomic bomb at the Semipalatinsk test site. The beginning of the "struggle with cosmopolitanism."

 

1953 - The death of Stalin . G. M. Malenkov, who took the post of chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, becomes the actual leader of the USSR. Test of the first Soviet hydrogen bomb.

 

1954 - The beginning of the development of virgin lands.

 

1955 - Displacement of Malenkov, power passes to the first secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, N. S. Khrushchev. The signing of the Warsaw Pact.

 

1956 - XX Congress of the CPSU. Report Khrushchev "On the cult of personality and its consequences . " Soviet troops entered into Hungary. Rehabilitation of the repressed.

 

1957 - Launch of the world's first artificial satellite (Sputnik-1).

 

1961 - The space flight of Yu. A. Gagarin .

 

1962 - The Caribbean Crisis.

 

1964 - The removal of N. S. Khrushchev from power. The leader of the country becomes L. I. Brezhnev.

 

1965 - Economic reform of national economy management and planning in the USSR under the leadership of A. N. Kosygin.

 

1968 - Soviet participation in the suppression of the Prague Spring .

 

1972 - Treaties on the limitation of the missile defense system and strategic offensive weapons.

 

1972 - The match for the title of world chess champion between the acting Russian world chess champion Boris Vasilievich Spassky and the American challenger Robert James Fisher, in which the latter won.

 

1977 - Adoption of the Brezhnev Constitution of the USSR.

 

1979 - The beginning of the Afghan war , which ended in 1989.

 

1982-1985 - the death of L. I. Brezhnev, the change of power in the USSR. For four years, two leaders changed (Andropov and Chernenko spent a year and three months on the post of general secretary of the party for three months and three hundred and eighty days respectively)

 

1985 - Mikhail S. Gorbachev was elected General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Start adjustment.

 

1986 - The largest technogenic catastrophe at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

 

1991 - The election of B. N. Yeltsin as president of the RSFSR. Education Emergency Committee . The failure of the coup attempt. The collapse of the USSR . The end of the cold war.

 

1992 - Start of liberal economic reforms. The beginning of privatization.

 

1993 - The constitutional crisis, the attack of supporters of the dissolved Supreme Council on the building of the Moscow City Hall and the Ostankino television center. The shooting of the Russian parliament. The adoption by popular vote of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

 

1994-1996 - The war in Chechnya.

 

1996 - B. N. Yeltsin was re-elected President of the Russian Federation.

 

1998 - Default in Russia.

 

1999 - The invasion of militants in Dagestan, the beginning of the Second Chechen campaign, a series of terrorist acts in Russian cities (Buinaksk, Moscow and Volgodonsk) - apartment buildings exploding, B. N. Yeltsins resignation, appointment of Vladimir V. Putin as Acting President of the Russian Federation .

 

2000 - V. Putin was elected President of the Russian Federation . Creating federal districts in the Russian Federation. The disaster of the submarine "Kursk". Fire at the Ostankino television tower in Moscow.

RUSSIA IN THE REVOLUTION AND CIVIL WAR 1917-1921

 

ORIGINS OF THE REVOLUTION Revolutionary rise

Army decomposition

State of the economy

Crisis. Grigori Rasputin and Nicholas II. Murder of Rasputin

The overthrow of the monarchy. History of the Russian Revolution

PUBLIC DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA in 1917 Petrograd Soviet and Provisional Government

Political crises. A. F. Kerensky. V.I. Lenin

Kornilov revolt. General Kornilov. General Brusilov. Kaledin, Milyukov, Shulgin

Parties and social movements. The Socialist-Revolutionary Party became of Russia after the return to Russia V. I. Lenin

OCTOBER ARMED REBELLION AND FORMATION OF BASES OF SOVIET STATEHOOD. The rise of the national crisis. The October Revolution in Russia

Bolsheviks come to power

Bolshevik Party. The idea of creating a homogeneous socialist government

Economic foundations of the Soviet system

Kamenev. Sverdlov. Legislative design of the political system. 1918 Constitution

INITIAL STAGE OF WAR. FORMATION OF THE SYSTEM "MILITARY COMMUNISM". The approval of the Soviet government in the center and in the field. Denikin. Ataman Krasnov

From the Constituent Assembly to the Brest Peace. White movement

The beginning of the frontal period of the Civil war in Russia

"War Communism" in Russia: politics and ideology

APOGEY of CIVIL WAR. RESULTS OF SOCIAL CONFRONTATION. The fighting in late 1918 - early 1919

Stalin in 1919. On the eve of decisive battles

The decisive battles of the Civil war. Kolchak. Denikin. Makhno. Red Army

Soviet-Polish war and the fall of the Crimea. Kornilov. Wrangel. Tukhachevsky. Kolchak, Denikin and Yudenich

The end of the civil war in the regions. Red Army and the Bolshevik movement

Results of the Civil war in Russia. Terror of the Cheka

POWER AND CULTURE. October Revolution and the Russian intelligentsia

Organization of Education and Science. The GOELRO Plan

Intellectuals and Civil War. Bolshevism

Recommended literature

NEP - NEW ECONOMIC POLICY. 1921-1929

 

NEP - NEW ECONOMIC POLICY. FROM "MILITARY COMMUNISM" TO A NEW ECONOMIC POLICY The crisis of 1921. Kronstadt

Go to NEP. Molotov. Kollontai

Industrial Russia

From Soviet Russia to the Soviet Republic USSR

1924 USSR Constitution

THE INNER PARTY FIGHT OF THE 1920s AND THE ORIGINS OF STALINISM. Soviet power and the "dictatorship of the party"

Anti-Stalinist oppositions. Trotskiy. Kamenev. Zinoviev

Stalin. Bukharin. Building socialism in one single country

Choosing a path. Stalin. Bukharin. Trotskiy

SOVIET FOREIGN POLICY. Soviet Russia and Western countries in the early 20s

"Band of confessions". Comintern. Zinoviev and Trotsky

Isolation hazard. Letter of Zinoviev. Anti-Soviet sentiment especially intensified in 1926

 STATE AND CHURCH IN SOVIET RUSSIA. The Russian Orthodox Church in the years of revolution and Civil war. Patriarch Tikhon and Lenin

Soviet power and Orthodoxy in the first half of the 1920s

Memorandum of Solovki bishops. The fate of the Church - the fate of the people. Kaganovich

Recommended literature

SOVIET SOCIETY AT THE END OF THE 20-30S

 

ESTABLISHMENT OF STALIN'S PERSONAL POWER REGIME. The evolution of the constitutional system of the USSR in the 1920-1930s. Dzerzhinsky

1936 Constitution. Kalinin. Marshal Tukhachevsky

Political processes of the 30s. murder of Kirov. The Stalinist terror

SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATIONS DURING "REVOLUTION ABOVE". Molotov. Kuibyshev. Mikoyan. Stakhanov

"Pests" in industry. Vyshinsky. The Soviet press reported that a "large sabotage organization"

"Armor is strong, and our tanks are fast". The Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) adopted a resolution - On the liquidation of sabotage at the enterprises of the military industry

Sources of accumulation. In the course of industrialization, a huge dispersion of funds instead of their concentration caused a huge thirst

Peasantry "on Calvary". Trip to Siberia. The most tragic page in the history of collectivization was the famine of 1932-1933

AN ATTACK ON ANOTHERNESS IN IDEOLOGY AND CULTURE. Party dictation and culture. The GPU intensified work among the intelligentsia, about 160 oppositionist scholars and cultural figures were expelled from Russia

The "Cultural Revolution" in Russia. Completion of the "cultural revolution"

CONTRADICTIONS OF SOVIET FOREIGN POLICY. USSR in the international arena in 1929-1938

Soviet-German relations. The secret additional protocol to the Soviet-German non-aggression pact. Molotov and Ribbentrop

USSR and the Baltic States - Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

The Winter War USSR-Finland 1939-1940. The Soviet-Finnish confrontation

Tension escalation in the Far East. Soviet-Japanese agreement was concluded regarding the final payment by Japan for the Chinese-Eastern Railway

Hitler. On the eve of fascist aggression. The "Slavic program" of Hitler

Recommended literature. History of the Second World War. Stalin-Hitler

SOVIET UNION DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR

 

THE EUROPEAN-POLITICAL CONFRONTATION OF THE USSR AND GERMANY

The decisive battles of World War II. Period of the Moscow battle. The battle of Stalingrad. Wehrmacht

The Victory Parade in Moscow1945. Marshal Rokossovsky, Zhukov and Konev. Order Victory

People's War. Guerrilla movement during the Great Patriotic War

Soviet military economy after the end of the Great Patriotic War

Labor resources of the country

Prisoners of the Main Directorate of the NKVD - Gulag during the war

The World War 2 and Russian Orthodox Church. Metropolitan Alexy

FOREIGN POLICY ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR. The anti-Hitler coalition USSR, USA, England and China

Allied Conferences Stalin, Truman, Winston Churchill. The Tehran Conference. The Yalta (Crimea) Conference. The anti-Hitler coalition

War with Japan. The Kwantung Army

Recommended literature

STRENGTHENING THE PERSONAL POWER REGIME AND YEARS OF REFORMS. 1946-1964

 

SOVIET SOCIETY IN THE FIRST POST-WAR YEARS. The struggle for power in the party leadership. Molotov, Beria, Mikoyan, Kosygin, Voroshilov and Kaganovich

New round of repression. The "Leningrad Affair". Abakumov, Beria and Malenkov

The economy of USSR after The Great Patriotic War

Ideology and culture of USSR after The Great Patriotic War. Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Akhmatova, Zoshchenko

N. S. KHRUSHCHEV'S DECADE The death of Stalin and arrest of Beria. Changes in the political hierarchy

The initial stage of the de-Stalinization of society after Stalins death

Malenkov. Khrushchev. Socio-economic development of the USSR

Science, culture and education. "Doctor Zhivago" - Pasternak, Okudzhava, Shalamov, Akhmadullina

The resignation of N. S. Khrushchev

USSR IN WORLD POLITICS: FROM "COLD WAR" TO "THAW" Splitting the World and the Beginning Stage of the Cold War

Changes in Soviet foreign policy. Molotov. Gromyko

Contradictions of the USSR foreign policy. Kennedy. Soviet-American relations

Recommended literature

The USSR IN THE PERIOD OF "Zastoy" AND "Rebuilds" Perestroyka

 

POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE USSR FROM BREZHNEV TO GORBACHEV. Personalization of power in the USSR in the Brezhnev period

The emerging cult of Brezhnev. Power and opposition in the late 60s - first half of the 70s

The Constitution of 1977 and the society of developed socialism of the late 70s. Olympics-80

From Brezhnev to Gorbachev (1982-1985). Chernenko. Andropov

Perestroika. Gorbachev. The first period of adjustment (1985-1988). Ligachev. Yeltsin

Congresses of people's deputies (1989-1990). Gorbachev. Deputat of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin

1991: the collapse of the USSR and the formation of the CIS. Yeltsin, Ryzhkov, Zhirinovsky, Tuleyev, Makashov, Bakatin

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN YEARS OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND REFORMS Economic transformations of 1965-1973

The Soviet economy in the period of "stagnation" zastoy. The reforms of Kosygin

Attempts to reform the Soviet planned economy in the 80s. Ryzhkov. Prime Minister Pavlov. Shevardnadze

DISCHARGE AND NEW TENSION TENSION. The USSR and the countries of the world socialist system in the late 60-70s. Doctrine of Brezhnev. Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary

The USSR and Western countries. The field of limiting strategic offensive arms SALT-1. Afghanistan

Regional conflicts and the Afghan war. The introduction of Soviet troops in Afghanistan. The Moscow Olympics-80

The USSR foreign policy after the entry of Soviet troops into Afghanistan. The incident with the South Korean passenger aircraft

New Thinking in International Politics. Gorbachev. Gromyko. Shevardnadze

 

MODERN RUSSIA The confrontation of legislative and executive authorities 1992-1993. Boris Yeltsin

Political development of Russia in 1994-1996. President Boris Yeltsin. Military operations in the Chechen Republic. The Communist Party of the Russian Federation. State Duma

Russia at the turn of the millennia 1997-2000. President Vladimir Putin. Chernomyrdin. Primakov. Chubais. Kiriyenko. Nemtsov

 

 

The coat of arms of the USSR and the coats of arms of 15 allied Soviet republics

The coat of arms of the USSR and the coats of arms of 15 allied Soviet republics